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美国总统谈旅游  

2009-04-29 01:52:00|  分类: 散文随笔 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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US PRESIDENTS ON TOURISM
TOURISME PARLÉ PAR LES PRESIDENTS DES ÉTATS-UNIS

作者/刘植荣 LIU Zhirong

又到五一假期了,我想,很多朋友会利用这个假期旅游。我们看看美国总统是怎样看待旅游的。

美国第三任总统托马斯·杰斐逊在写给自己外甥彼得·卡尔的信中写道:

旅游让人聪明,而不是让人快乐。中年人旅游能获得知识,从而更好地为祖国服务。但从此以后,伴随遗憾的回忆也将与他们纠缠。还有,他们的情感也因被众多事物分散而变得淡漠。他们学到了新习惯,但回来后却总对此耿耿于怀。倘若是年轻人旅游,他们存在的上述缺点比中年人的更为严重,他们不能在旅游中增长智慧,因为他们缺乏在家时通过反复公正地观察事物所获得的基本知识。美景和愉悦的光芒就像血管里流淌的血液,吸引了他们所有的兴趣和注意力,当返回家时,感觉远离了世界上的唯一美景,好像回到了服刑的流放地。他们会一直寻找失去的事物,对这些事物的怀念毒害着他们的余生。他们最初那种微妙的激情被那些毫无价值的东西摧残,带回家的,是不能让自己和他人快乐的糟粕。除此之外,他们还养成了懒散的习惯,失去了工作能力。这样的旅游对他们自己、对祖国有百害而无一利。我是根据自己的经历得出这些认识的。世界上没有任何地方像在自己家乡那样,对知识的追求不受外部事物的影响,心灵的美德没有丝毫的损伤。要行善,要博学,要勤勉,不要指望旅游能让你为祖国做出多大贡献。对朋友要和善,赠人玫瑰,手留余香。我再重复我的忠告,要加强锻炼身体,要多走路。健康是继道德之后的第一需要。亲爱的彼得,要经常给我写信,除了我对你充满热情外,我对你的任何成就都感兴趣。

美国第二任总统约翰·亚当斯在写给自己孙子乔治·华盛顿·亚当斯和约翰·亚当斯二世的信中说:

我希望你们每人都要准备一个笔记本,要随身携带,这样,当你看到或听到新鲜事时,就可当场记下。还要准备一个袖珍墨盒,便宜的那种就行,同时准备一两张纸,随身携带。一个日记本也是不可或缺的。“读书不带笔,准会打瞌睡。”(原文是拉丁语)旅游时不做记录,比鸟儿在天上飞过好不到哪去,鸟儿从天空飞走,身后留不下任何踪迹。不管你写什么东西,都要保留下来。我在愤恨和羞辱的时候,曾烧掉了自己的大量愚蠢的笔记,我现在真是追悔莫及,如有可能,我愿用我的一切换回这些笔记。

以下是英文原文:

Travelling. This makes men wiser, but less happy. When men of sober age travel, they gather knowledge, which they may apply usefully for their country; but they are subject ever after to recollections mixed with regret; their affections are weakened by being extended over more objects; and they learn new habits which cannot be gratified when they return home. Young men, who travel, are exposed to all these inconveniences in a higher degree, to others still more serious, and do not acquire that wisdom for which a previous foundation is requisite, by repeated and just observations at home. The glare of pomp and pleasure is analogous to the motion of the blood; it absorbs all their affection and attention, they are torn from it as from the only good in this world, and return to their home as to a place of exile and condemnation. Their eyes are forever turned back to the object they have lost, and its recollection poisons the residue of their lives. Their first and most delicate passions are hackneyed on unworthy objects here, and they carry home the dregs, insufficient to make themselves or anybody else happy. Add to this, that a habit of idleness, an inability to apply themselves to business is acquired, and renders them useless to themselves and their country. These observations are founded in experience. There is no place where your pursuit of knowledge will be so little obstructed by foreign objects, as in your own country, nor any, wherein the virtues of the heart will be less exposed to be weakened. Be good, be learned, and be industrious, and you will not want the aid of travelling, to render you precious to your country, dear to your friends, happy within yourself. I repeat my advice, to take a great deal of exercise, and on foot. Health is the first requisite after morality.

I wish you to have each a Pencil Book, always in your Pockett, by which you may minute on the Spot any remarkable thing you may See or hear. A pocket Ink horn, any cheap thing of the kind, and a Sheet or two of paper, ought always to be about you. A Journal; a Diary is indispensible. "Studium Sine Calamo, Somnium." Without a minute Diary, your Travels, will be no better than the flight of Birds, through the Air. They will leave no trace behind them. Whatever you write preserve. I have burned, Bushells of my Silly notes, in fitts of Impatience and humiliation, which I would now give anything to recover. (选自《美国总统家书精选50封》

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